Common Psychological Disorder among Patients with Retroviral Disease


  • Nor Hidayah Jaris Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
  • Suresh Kumar Chidambaram Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
  • Semran Kaur Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Salmi Razali Institute of Pathology, Laboratory and Forensic Medicine (I-PPerForM) Universiti Teknologi MARA, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia



Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) increases further morbidity and mortality of patients with retroviral disease (RVD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the contributing factors of MDD and GAD. The symptoms were screened using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), MDD and GAD was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). 27(12.9%) patients had MDD and 28(13.0%) had GAD. The contributing factors include illicit drug use in the past, social support system, and CD4 count. Interventions for RVD patients should include counselling for those abusing drugs, increasing support system and adherence to treatment.

Keywords: Retroviral Disease, Anxiety, Depression, Support system

eISSN 2514-7528 © 2021 The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA CE-Bs by E-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians / Africans / Arabians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.




How to Cite

Jaris, N. H. ., Chidambaram, S. K. ., Kaur, S. ., & Razali, S. . (2021). Common Psychological Disorder among Patients with Retroviral Disease. Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies, 6(18), 1-18.