Investigating Cross- Cultural Differences in Personal Space: Kurdish and Northern women in Iran

  • Fatemeh Mohammad Niay Gharaei Department of Architecture and Art, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • Mojtaba Rafieian Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Tarbiat Modares, Iran


This study investigated cross-cultural differences in regard to the size of personal space among two Iranian sub-cultures (Kurdish and Northern women) vis-à-vis strangers. Methodology of research designed on participant observation, stop-distance method and questionnaire. A random size of 100 Kurdish and Northern women was selected in Sanandaj and Sari cities. Moreover, to examine the survey Chi-Square Test and Independent Sample Test were conducted. The results show that Kurdish women require more inter-personal space while walking and sitting than Northern (Mazani) women do. These findings assist environmental designers to represent strategies for achieving privacy in relation to Iranian sub-cultures. 

Keywords: Living quality; Privacy; Personal space; Sub-culture; Iranian women

eISSN  2514-7528 © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

How to Cite
MOHAMMAD NIAY GHARAEI, Fatemeh; RAFIEIAN, Mojtaba. Investigating Cross- Cultural Differences in Personal Space: Kurdish and Northern women in Iran. Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies, [S.l.], v. 3, n. 6, p. 111-118, jan. 2018. ISSN 2514-7528. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 feb. 2019. doi:

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