A Global View on the Environmental Consequences of Antarctic Tourism
Antarctica tourism evidently harms its ecosystem in direct and indirect ways. Ecosystems are dynamic and complex systems, which simultaneously depend on various humanity and natural factors. The nature of tourist activities continuously changes, which needs improved policies and protection standards. If the varied tourism activities and the diverse consequent impacts are not adequately addressed, they may not be thoroughly considered by international treaties. This can pose unacceptable environmental risks supposedly legally safeguarded by these treaties. Hence, this study studied Antarctic tourism impacts in five major groups from a global view. The results are useful for future legislations and implementations.
Keywords: Antarctic tourism, environmental impact; categorisation, global perspective
eISSN 2514-7528 © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.